13. Stars are not always in the sky, thanks to architecture.
This beautiful place that looks like it came out of a fantasy novel is called the Star Fort in Bourtange in the Netherlands. It was built and completed in 1593 under the orders of William the Silent. Why? To control the only road they had between Germany and the city of Groningen, whom Spain was holding during the Eighty Years’ War from 1568 to 1648. This place was in the correct position to control the link between the two locations, with a network of canals and lakes used as moats for a layer of defense.
While tensions grew, this fort served as a defense network on the German border from the end of the war and forward. It wasn’t until 1851 that they decided it was not worth keeping for defense. Thus, they ordered the fort to become a village. Over 100 years passed, and when the economy and living conditions permitted it, the government decided to restore Fort Bourtange. They transformed the abandoned space into a historical museum. Its shape wasn’t just because it looked “neat.” It was because it gave the guards a panoramic view of any potential attacks, and it worked! Now we can all admire this fantastic design from the sky and be impressed by how marvelous this fort is.
12. The twisted tower of Shanghai is one interesting architectural feat.
Shanghai has a very modern and futuristic skyline that feels like it’s the inspiration for many sci-fi novels. We can talk about many of the skyscrapers and exciting buildings in the area, but today we are focusing on one in particular: the Shanghai Tower. It was created by the American architectural firm, Gensler, with architect Jun Xia as the design team leader. This 128-floor building is all enclosed in an inner layer of glass façade which has an outer layer of glass that gives the effect of a twisted structure. Another exciting thing about this building is that both layers of the façade are transparent, eliminating the need to make any of the layers opaque.
There are nine indoor zones for visitors to find anything from restaurants, cafés, beautiful gardens, and shops. At the same time, they can enjoy a panoramic view of the city and its other fantastic buildings. Speaking of that, the Shanghai Tower joined forces with the Jin Mao Tower and the SWFC to have the world’s first adjacent grouping of three skyscraping buildings, which will turn into a 258 room hotel and include a museum. Having the opportunity to view these massive buildings is a privilege to admire. Sadly, the building is not entirely open, and there are a few areas are still under construction and expected to be available in the future.
11. A different type of architecture means a different way of living — and looking at things.
Not everything on this list has to be glamorous or filled with riches. However, this area of the world is still a significant one that we need to address. This is Dharavi, a locality in Mumbai, Maharashtra. People consider it one of the biggest slums in Asia, with around one million people in 277,136 kilometers. That figure makes it one of the most important densely populated areas in the world. It’s crazy seeing such a small area be filled with houses all close together. Plus, seeing it in this shot from the sky makes you wonder how small each home is.
The British Colonial era founded the area in 1884. Things started getting complicated, and factories were laying off people by the hundreds, so most of them ended up moving to this area. They used recycled items put together by the community for all of the housing. This includes people who made their living selling leather, textiles, pottery, and other goods. Even if they live a very humble life, with many disasters suffered by the people living here, including a plague, you just wondered how the construction of the houses started. Furthermore, how it grew over time to what it is today.
10. These ancient towers of Chittorgarh reveal a stunning aerial view.
Seeing buildings and towers that had survived over centuries of wars, bad weather, and fires is something that we need to be thankful for having the opportunity to witness and appreciate the hard work ancient civilizations went thru. The Jaya Stambh and Kirti Stambh towers in Chittorgarh, India, have been there since the 13th and 14th Centuries! The oldest one, Kirti Stambha (which means “The Tower of Fame”), is climbable. A merchant named Jeeja Bhagerwala crated this 72-foot-tall tower in honor of the first Jain Tirthankar, Adinath. Adjacent to it is another tower that dates over 100 years later.
This “newer” tower is called the Jaya Stambh (which means “The Tower of Victory) and was another tribute piece, but this time to honor the triumphs of King Rana Kumbha defeating the Malwa and Gujarat armies. This impressive tower is 120 feet high and has 157 spiral steps to the top, where you can view this ancient town. They also dedicated this tower to the Hindu God Vishnu. You can see this god in many of the carvings all over the building. Both towers center around an even older town, with some inscriptions that date back to the 1st and 3rd Centuries! The whole area has so much history and secrets that researchers are still trying to figure out—seeing those ancient towers still up after all this time makes us wonder how they survived after many centuries.
9. Look at the city where arts and science are the future of architecture and learning.
In our book, it’s always a must when you visit a new town to check their museum or educational place and learn something new. Well, if you see the city of Valencia in Spain, going to the City of Arts and Sciences is the one-stop you need to make. This cultural and architectural complex is considered one of the 12 treasures of Spain and one of the most important tourist destinations of the area. Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela designed it in a former riverbed of Turia after the area flooded in the late 1950s. They started construction in July of 1996. The city inaugurated the building just two years later, in April of 1998. However, they’re still more building to do.
It kept expanding until 2009 when the last building, “L’agora, was opened to the public. The interesting thing is that initially, it was only going to be three buildings, but it has expanded about three times that. Each building has a different theme. There’s “Palau de Les Arts Reina Sofia” — an Opera house and performing arts. Also, check out the Planetarium and Imax Cinema, “Hemispheric.” The “Museo de las Ciencias Principe Felipe” is a science museum. “Oceanografic” is an open-air aquarium with over 500 marine species. Finally, the “Agora” holds different activities and events, including concerts. The futuristic style and modern city will transport you to the future and admire a creative way of keeping people interested in arts and science.
8. Check out a 1,700-year-old place that is still going strong.
China has some of the most well-preserved buildings dating back hundreds and even thousands of years old – that architects around the globe still admire. One of the best well-known buildings is the Beisi Pagoda at Bao’en Temple in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. This octagonal pagoda and tower are nine stories tall and 249 feet tall. If you think that’s huge, it used to be 11 stories. However, it was damaged, so they had to reduce the space down to 9. The construction includes wood, stone, and brick. Knowing how old the structure is, it’s no wonder they had to complete reconstruction over time. The Ming Dynasty, which was from 1368 to 1644, completed the design we see today. Although there is no specific date, it is for sure that the pagoda is way older than that.
Experts believe that the area where the pagoda is today dates back 1,700 years! A Buddhist pagoda was once built there during the reign of Sun Quan in the 3rd century. Then another one around the Liang Dynasty (502 to 557). The pagoda structure that we see today was constructed between 1131 and 1162 and led by Buddhist monk Dayuan. It was even burned down but restored during the centuries until the present day. In 2006 they restored the building to its glory days. Knowing all the history and everything that this pagoda had witnessed, we wish its wall could speak.
7. Here’s what an orthodox church did for World War II.
As we have discussed before, Russia has some of the most intricate and iconic architectural buildings in the world, and when it comes to orthodox churches, they are on the top of the most impressive ones you will ever find. Furthermore, the one church that comes to our mind is St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral in Peterhof. You can see why it’s such a loved cathedral when you see pictures from above like this one, which belongs in a postcard! Around 1892, the project of making this building come true came after Emperor Alexander II approved the design made by Nikolay Sultanov to create a place where a more extensive crowd could gather together for mass.
Back then, they did not allow commoners inside churches belonging to the palace. This was the perfect place to keep its inhabitants happy and provide a space for gathering. After many years in the making, in 1905, they finally opened it. The church was shut down in 1935 in the middle of World War II when the structure got damaged while it was being used as artillery headquarter by German military forces. After the war, it stayed closed until it was restored and fixed. In 1990, they celebrated its first service after decades of being closed. The surroundings and the massive structure standing in the middle make this cathedral loved by many people around Russia and the world.
6. A cathedral showing its true colors to the world.
The grandeur of this next building puts it in the big leagues. This is the St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna, Austria. It’s the tallest church in Austria, but it’s also one of the tallest churches in the world. At 450 feet high, you can see this building from many corners of Vienna. Not just because of its size and its colors that stand out from the rest. This 12th century church has a beautiful roof with geometrical patterns, a double eagle, colored tiles, Gothic form, and the city’s coat of arms that make the structure completely unique. However, underneath St. Stephens, the remains of two other churches stood in the same place. Now, they are lost forever but never forgotten.
As a tribute to the other churches that were there before St. Stephen’s, once a year, they ring the Plummerin bell for three minutes in the afternoon. You can see the ancient Plummerin bell if you are in shape enough to climb 343 steps to the top of the tower. At that height, you will also have a breathtaking view of the city of Vienna and many areas of Austria. However, the main focus has always been its beautiful colors on the limestone roof. Nevertheless, because it’s hundreds of years old, some colors are hidden by soot and air pollution. Thankfully, they have a restoration team who are working that is working to resurface the beauty of it, which has already cleaned part of the towers.
5. Did you know this architecture is almost a celebrity?
We all need a vacation from time to time, especially in a place that irradiates peace. The Marina Bay Sands resort in Singapore is your second home away from home if you have a lot of money to spend, mainly because of the casino property since it’s considered the world’s most expensive one at $6.8 billion US dollars. This fancy resort has 2,651 rooms, a gigantic convention-exhibition center, a mall, museum, movie theater, lots of fancy restaurants, two floating crystal pavilions, art exhibits, and the largest atrium casino in the world with over 500 tables and 1,600 slot machines.
And that’s not all! It also has a Skypark with a capacity of almost 4,000 people and an infinity pool that is on top of the world’s largest cantilevered platform. The mastermind behind this massive resort is architect Moshe Safdie. Card decks inspired him to make the beautiful surroundings and prominent buildings. If this place looks familiar, it’s because it’s on reality shows like The Amazing Race. This place is in films like Crazy Rich Asians and Independence Day: Resurgence. Do you like video games? You probably recognize it from Call of Duty: Black Ops 3 as a destroyed version of the resort. We can say for sure that this building will leave an impression if you ever get to visit it.
4. A massive tribute to a fallen emperor makes for amazing architecture.
Let’s continue admiring Russia’s beautiful churches. Here, we have the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood in St. Petersburg. This one is an orthodox church and a secular museum, making it one of the most visited and beloved attractions in St. Petersburg. Construction for it started in 1883, and the building opened in 1907. The Romanov Imperial Family funded everything. They honored Emperor Alexander II with this building. At the time, his son Alexander III was in power, so it was a tribute to his father, who died two years prior. Nevertheless, there is more than just a name to honor him inside the church.
A bomb killed Alexander II in the same road and place where the church construction was. They wanted to create a permanent shrine in his name. Therefore, they decided to narrow the canal so that the street where he was assassinated ended up inside the church. Inside, they constructed a ciborium on the opposite side of the altar at the exact place where it took place. Semi-precious stones decorate the building, which contrasts with the rest of the area. While the site has primarily baroque and neoclassical buildings, the church has medieval Russian architecture, which makes it stand up from everything else and resembles a 17th-century Yaroslavi church. If the exterior is iconic, a team of the most celebrated artists designed the interior. They collaborated with architect Alfred Alexandrovich Parland. He decorated the walls with intricate mosaics, being the most than any other church in the world.
3. Look at a breathtaking aerial view of the most significant capital in the world.
The capital of one of the wealthiest countries globally, Washington DC is home to some of the most well-known monuments in North America filled with the nation’s history. Nevertheless, while there are many in the capital city, one stands up from all of them: the Washington Monument. It stands at 554 feet tall. Plus, it is the tallest obelisk and stone structure in the world made out of bluestone gneiss, marble, and granite. This obelisk within the National Mall came in 1966 as a commemoration of George Washington, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War and the First President of the United States.
It was also the tallest structure globally. However, the Eiffel Tower in Paris overtook that record in 1889. The design came from the obelisk found in Egypt and made by Robert Mills. If you look closely at the monument, the marble has two different colors. That is because its construction began in 1848, but they halted it from 1854 to 1877. Why? Because they ran out of money. So for 23 years, the monument was only halfway done, and when they finally resumed construction, the marble they used came from a different source which is why it has two different marble shades. You can climb to the top (or use the elevator). There you will have a spectacular view of the capital and all its monuments.
2. The tallest museum in the world has an amazing view from above.
The Mole Antonelliana in Turin, Italy, is one of the most famous landmarks in the city. So much so that you can see a representation of it on the obverse of the Italian 2 euro cent coin. Named after its creator, architect Alessandro Antonelli, the construction of it began around 1863 and opened for the public in 1889, a year after the passing of Antonelli. They designed and constructed it to be a synagogue. Why? Mainly because of how big the Jewish community was in Turin, which at the time it was the capital of the new Italian state. However, when they transferred the money to Florence in 1864, the community got smaller. Nevertheless, the vision of its architect got more extensive, making the building 151 feet taller than the initial plan.
Since the Jewish community was running low in funds, they left the project, and the government took over, finishing Antonelli’s vision. When they finally finished it, the building was 550 feet tall, making it the tallest building in Europe at the time. It also received the title of the tallest unreinforced brick building in the world. Today, the building houses the National Museum of Cinema, making it the tallest museum globally. It had become such a big part of the history of Italy. So much that in 2006 it was the inspiration for the official emblem of the Winter Olympics of that year.
1. The biggest tribute to love through architecture.
When we talk about fantastic home architecture, hands down, the one that we can think is the most impressive (and expensive) is the Taj Mahal in Agra, India. Considered one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in 2007 and part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site, this mausoleum is one of the most well-known structures on the planet. Being the symbol of India’s rich history, it is one of the most visited places with around 8 million visitors every year. The story behind this building is one of heartache and a tribute to love in the most expensive way possible.
Shah Jahan commissioned the building to tribute his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She passed away while giving birth to their 14th child. His grief was so much that he wanted to make the most lavishing mausoleum he could afford. Experts believe that it cost around 32 million rupees to complete, which with inflation, it be approximately 70 billion rupees in 2020. Likewise, that is about 1 billion US dollars. Construction started in 1632. They completed the main building in 1643. However, it took ten more years to finish its surroundings and the rest of the complex. Shah Jahan passed away in 1666. His body lay with his wife, where they reside to this day.